The increasing amounts of population and industrialization have led to an increase in the amount of solid waste generation. This has posed problems on how to effectively manage the increasing amount and types of waste produced. As a result, there has been the development of the automatic waste segregation system which is a cheap and easy way to manage the solid waste produced.
An automatic sorting system for solid waste is able to detect and categorize solid waste into;
Components of an automatic waste segregation system
Automatic waste segregation system is composed of three main systems as below;
The input module
This is composed of different sensors interfaced to detect waste, dry waste, metallic waste, and plastic waste. The sensors are properly arranged along a conveyor belt with hydraulic cylinders below and collecting bins that collect the different types of waste in front of them.
The input module is also composed of high-speed fans that are used to blow any light object and dust to a different collecting bin that is placed on the opposite side of the fan.
The programmable logic controller
This is the most important component of an automatic waste segregation system. It receives signals conveyed from the input module and performs actions according to those signals received.
The output module
This component acts according to the commands it receives from the programmable logic controller. It has the hydraulic cylinders and the conveyor belts which are output giving devices.
Wanna learn more about the modules, you are suggested to find more info here.
Components involved include;
This is where all waste is first input and is broken down into smaller pieces after which the crushed material goes through a funnel into the conveyor belt in the input module.
They are variously used to detect the type of waste for recycling or for re-use. These include;
i. IR sensor – used to detect any object that is in the conveyor belt by emitting infra-red rays sending a signal to the programmable logic controller which will then start the conveyor belt.
ii. Moisture sensor- it is placed at the beginning of the conveyor belt and used to detect wet and dry waste by absorbing moisture content in the waste material.
iii. Metal detection sensor – used to detect metallic objects by operating on the principal of coil inductance whereby when metallic objects pass along the sensor, there is a power loss.
iv. Plastic detection sensor – it uses a photoelectric sensor that is able to detect any plastic waste that passes along it.
v.Proximity capacitive sensor – it is used to detect glass and paper waste when the target material passes near the sensor.
The various sensors are attached on the conveyor belt that is moving. Waste materials move over it as they are segregated and placed into different collecting bins.
They are used to remove light objects which are later collected in a different bin.
The automatic waste separation equipment uses spring return type acting cylinders that are pressurized from one side by high forces exerted.
How an automatic waste segregation system works
The processes involve waste collection which is then fed into the crusher that breaks it down into smaller particles. The crushed waste is directed into the conveyor belt through a funnel. The IR sensor then detects the waste and sends a signal to the programmable logic controller that then sets the conveyor belt making it start moving. The different sensors located along the conveyor belt begin to detect the different types of waste one at a time and the energized hydraulic cylinders help in pushing the various wastes into their respective bins. The fan, on the other hand, blows off the dust and very light objects contained in the waste to a separate bin. These wastes are then conveyed to the output module where they are collected separately.
What you can obtain from the automatic waste segregation system
Once all the waste is segregated, one can obtain other wastes that can go back to recycling and be useful again. These include;
•Plastics can be recycled to become cheap sources of energy.
•Metals can be recycled in the steel industries to provide new metal materials.
•The organic waste can be used as a source of fertilizers in the agricultural sector and to improve lands that are barren.
You can contact Beston machinery in China to get more useful suggestions about setting up this kind of system in your city.